Thursday, August 15, 2019

BASIC KEY LANDMARKS for Figure Drawing - 人物画のための基本的なランドマーク

Landmarks are keys that can help you plot your path from beginning to end when drawing the human figure.   Whether you start drawing using the head or the torso or the leg, these points can help you lock down positions when you are constructing your figure.


THE TORSO  (Front)

The torso is my favorite place to start since it determines so much about the figure. 
As noted in the diagram  the 10th rib, and the points of the iliac crest on the pelvis are excellent points to use.  

What's great about these two points is that they can help show how the body is twisting or bending in space. 

上図から分かるように、第十肋骨(10th rib)と、骨盤の腸骨稜(ちょうこつりょう:iliac crest)は大きな手掛かりです。


The sternum and the 10th rib points form a "Y" form on the front of the body. The distance between all these all basically the same length.  

Note in the first torso illustration,  the two points on the iliac crest are helpful for determining the center of the body by drawing a triangle down, and a line upwards from below the pubic arch.  This will always give you the perfect position of the navel.  

胸骨(sternum)と第十肋骨(10th rib)は、胴体前面にある"Y"字です。この3つのラインは基本的に同じ長さです。

最初のイラストの腸骨稜(iliac crest)を見てください。腸骨稜の2点を底辺にした逆三角形と、恥骨から上に伸ばしたラインによって、体の中心が分かります。こうすると、へそを置くべき場所がしっかり決まります。

TORSO (Rear)

The 7th Cervical Vertebra is the small bump at the base of your neck.  This is the position where the neck ends and the spine begins to curve in the opposite direction.

第七頸椎(7th Cervical Vertebra)は、背中側の首の付け根にある出っ張りです。ここが首の終わりで、ここから逆向きのカーブを描く背骨が始まります。

 The scapula on the left and right side of the body are excellent landmarks as well as the lower part of the torso's sacrum which holds the "Dimples of Venus" .



Arms and legs can be handled rhythmically.   However, if more anatomy is to be applied it can be handled as a series of interlocking shapes.

The arm I drew here are a little idealized but it is good to know what muscles are working underneath. 



Note how the forces of the deltoid (1), go into into the bicep (2), go into the elbow (3) into the supinator of the forearm (4) and finally out the wrist (5). 


In the leg in its simplest form can be handled from the curve of the outside of the leg (1) to the inside of the knee (2), to the outside of the calf muscle (3) out to the inside and outside peaks of the ankle (4 and 5)  and out to the curve behind the big toe (6). 

The sartorius muscle and the tensor fasciae  latae create a useful upside down V shape that straddles the quadricep muscles.


縫工筋(sartorius muscle)と大腿筋膜張筋(tensor fasciae latae)は逆V字型をなし、その下に大腿四頭筋(quadricep muscles)が挟み込まれています。

Please remember these are just landmarks to help you get from start to finish in an easier way.  Don't be a slave to anatomy.  These are just tools to help support the gesture and design of your drawing.


I have included some artist examples in fine art, illustration and cartooning. Can you locate where the landmarks are?


Have fun drawing!

Glenn Vilppu

Alex Ross

Glen Keane

Frank Frazetta

Peter Paul Rubens